Chasing Ray Pt 2: Caught In The Poor Pacing Trap

Last week's blog post But I Was Just Chasing Ray! was about how most of the swimmers in our squad started their 200m and 400m time-trials much too quickly and under performed as a result. Thanks for all your comments and feedback about it - great to know it was well received!

We've heard from many of you who really struggle to pace out your swims and quite a few who don't see why it is important to do so. Let's take a look at some of those comments and questions:

Carl in Minnesota wrote: I inevitably see the very drop off that you talk about in today's post when I swim. I can even notice it in the 50 m splits... My first 50 can be as fast as 0:38 if I am really pushing it, but more typically it is around 0:42. My second 50 is typically 0:46, and then I settle into my pace of 0:49-0:50 per 50 m. If I try to ease back on my first 100 m pacing, it actually SLOWS my 400+ m times! I still end up swimming all the rest of my 50's at the 0:49-0:50 pace.

Hi Carl, this is a classic situation to find yourself in, the first thing is (and we hope this doesn't sound rude!) but we actually don't believe you will be slower if you pace things out evenly. When you start at 38-42 seconds per 50m it feels very doable but the truth is that you're entering 'the red zone' and the damage is being done for the rest of the swim. It takes a minute or so for your breathing, heart rate and muscular feedback to respond but by then it is too late and you slow down dramatically - and in a maximum effort like a timetrial this is going to hurt a lot!

From our experience if you actually started at 46 seconds for the first 50m you will be able to sustain that pace for the rest of your swim and end up quicker overall. We see swimmers make this improvement all the time, the hardest part is to actually get them to slow down over the first 50-100m. Once they've got that first lap or two right, they naturally swim quicker without even realising it (and it normally feels easier too).

But of course this isn't just about sustaining a level of work, it's also about sustaining your stroke technique. If you start too fast and then fade, your stroke will deteriorate (perhaps feeling like it is 'falling apart') and you will slow down yet further. If you have any sort of crossover, scissor kick or poor body position this will inevitably worsen and you'll really start to fight things.

The drop off in output plus the deterioration in technique means you slow down hugely - a real double whammy.

Should I really be trying to force myself to slow down my first 100 (and thereby slow my 400 and 200 m times) so that I force myself to pace my swims better?

Absolutely yes! Although we doubt you'll actually be slower over the 200m and 400m - perception and reality can be very distorted with poor pacing, which is obviously the root of the problem in the first place.

An analogy we like to use is to imagine transitioning from being a high revving petrol engine which is great for sprinting to becoming a diesel engine which can sustain more continuous power for long periods of time. Go diesel and your distance swimming will come on leaps and bounds!

Oliver K said: First of all I must say that I never ever go for 400m as fast as I can. I mostly swim 50m and some 100m, and then 400m is close to infinity. So I go "strong"; I feel that has a kind of "fixed" meaning, but at the end of 400m I feel puuuh, rest say 60s in the water, and continue, while with a race I would either die or crawl out of the water with the last remaining strength (and die then).

That's that high revving petrol engine at work Oliver! Can you see the trap you are in here? By never swimming further than 50 or 100m you never train your diesel engine so it never develops. The only way out of this is to swallow some pride and sustain some longer swims at a slower pace. No it won't feel good at first but your fitness will start to improve and it will progressively feel easier (and faster) to do so. It is this aerobic fitness you need - it's not your strength that's failing you.

Get this right and you'll find 400m is only a short warmup - not infinity at all!

Isabel in Quebec posted: I have been pondering Carl's exact same question for a long while too. My first 50m is a good 5-6 seconds faster than my average speed (49' first 50m, average 54-56'). I figure at least half of those 5-6 seconds is the time it takes to turn around (I don't tumble) and if I'm already going as fast as I can, I can not do as well on the other laps because i don't have those free seconds I get from the inital push off. I'm thinking maybe I can do a crescendo, start off slow and catch up on the last 100m, but I think that at the very best, I finish off with the same total time and I will only have worked harder the last 100m.

I just can't figure out how we can improve by not taking advantage of those free seconds we get from the initial push off. And if my mind doesn't get it, maybe my body doesn't want to contradict it ;-)

Hi Isabel, this is obviously along a very similar vein to Carl and Oliver's questions and you can see our answers there (and we don't think it's the push-off, you get one of those on every length?). Make sure you time yourself push-off to push-off, not push-off to touch before you turn. That way you will be measuring the exact same thing on every length.

To us the key points in your post are in the very first and very last sentences. You've been pondering this 'for a long while' which suggests to us that you've been starting fast and then slowing down in pretty much every swim you do over many months and perhaps years? The question you've got to ask yourself is this: has that been working for you? Are you swimming as quickly as your hard work deserves? We're guessing not.

At the very end of the post you say 'my mind doesn't get it' and that - right there - is the trap isn't it? You simply have to come to terms with the fact you need consistent well paced longer swims in order to improve.

A Simple Set To Improve Your Diesel Engine

Here's a challenge for you if you feel you are in the same situation as Carl, Oliver and Isabel with a large drop-off in pace as you swim. Once a week swim this very simple session:

8x 300m with 20 seconds rest between each 300m.

That's it! But there are three rules:

1) You can swim this at any speed you like but every lap must be the same speed - don't start too fast no matter how easy it feels over the first 50-100m! Ideally use a beeper to get this spot on.

2) The whole session has to be straight swimming with no toys at all (e.g. pull buoy, paddles, fins) except for a beeper.

3) Stick to the 20 seconds rest (we'll be watching you know!)

Swim 3 to 4 sessions every week and include that session as one of them. After four weeks you will start to notice the improvement in the speed you can sustain over 200m and up. What's more, that improvement will continue for a long time as you keep that consistent training and pacing rolling week-in week-out.

It's Not Easy Being An Arnie!

The Arnie Swim Type is the most susceptible to being caught in this 'poor pacing trap' as they are naturally athletic fast-twitch athletes who find it all too easy to start too quickly. We've worked with Arnies from novice swimmers to elite triathletes who struggle with distance swimming speed but the answer to improving their swimming is always the same :

- Swallow some pride
- Fix the pacing
- Swim longer sets with short recoveries

Most Arnies reading this won't truly come to terms with this and will disregard it, leaving them in the poor pacing trap until they do. If you can be the one to truly take it on board and swallow the bitter pill of swimming slower but more continuously, you will soon be on the way to being a much faster swimmer.

Swim Smooth!


Ben Austen said...

What are the key tips for keeping the legs going thoroughout a session?

Anonymous said...

For those who have trouble controlling the pace of the first length or lap why not start the official timing for the workout after the first length or lap? With no overall time to be won during the first bit and a flying rather than standing start some might find it easier to find that more optimal, sustainable stroke and timing.

Mike A said...

I start my session with a warm-up session of 100m fast, 100m easy, 200m easy, with maybe 30s recovery between each. After that, I find I can start my main set in Diesel engine mode. That first 100m gets the petrol-head out of my system!

Ben Nicholson said...

Coming from a cycling background, I fully understand what you're saying about starting too fast. This is the same if i'm doing 3 or 5 minute intervals on the road. I don't go into the red as it's hard to get back out of it without going slow for a bit - and it shuts down some of your muscles with lactic acid.

An analogy would be if you're running 5 miles - try doing that off the back of a 100m flat out sprint - then try doing it of a gentle jog for the first 100m - a bit extreme, but you get the gyst..

Anonymous said...

I've been working on improved pacing for a couple of months, mainly in 100m intervals, and have certainly noticed a big improvement. My 100m splits have gone from a range of 1.48-1.58 initially, to 1.45-1.48. Plus I can now comfortably breath bilaterally when doing 100m intervals

I've started working on some longer intervals of up to 400m. Pacing is pretty good, but I can't sustain bilateral breathing throughout. Is this just a question of perseverance and gradually extending the distance I can swim before switching to one sided breathint?

T said...

Swim Smooth,

This is great stuff! Here's a tough one. I'm 6'3" and very lean with strong upper body, but very long, skinny legs. I'm a text book sinker and have trouble swimming slow (unless I have my beloved pull buoy). I need to kick to get my legs up which creates a "revved-up" mind-set, which results in a tendency to increase stroke rate and pace.....arrgh. Would love to slow down, but the balance between kicking (to plane out), and a maintaining a slower stroke rate/pace has been a challenge. Thoughts...?

Unknown said...

Hi Guys,

I'm big fan of your blog posts, videos and book. I've been learning a lot from them.

Since I'm from Brazil, great place for open water swimming all year, I'm wandering if there any plans for Swim Smooth to come to Brazil or at least have a certified trainer. :-)

Anyway, my comment on this post is that pacing is not easy, specially when you are told to do your best time. It's natural to give everything you have to perform at your best. What I've learned during the years from a great coach I had is, in order to do good pacing think about the distance in terms progressive effort. You have to start easier than you end, since that in order to do the same pace in the last 100m as you did in the first 100m, it will take more effort. This helps me pace my swims. I use this mindset in my open water swims and in my pool sets. This week I did a 400m in 5'34" with 1'24", 1'24", 1'24", 1'22". I was able to do the last 100m better because I was able to do a good pacing in the previous 300m. However, If I were even better at pacing, I should have done 1'23"every 100m, what it made my 400m time 2" better.

So investing in good pacing really pays back. Requires lots of practice, but pays back.

Oliver K said...

Hi Joaquim Torres,

I'm not quite convinced with you idea of extreme even pacing.

The data of the world record from Sun Yang, as given in the original post, now grouped for 100m's, is:

58.5, 58.3, 58.9, 58.1, 58.5, 58.6, 58.7, 58.9, 58.8, 58.6, 58.9, 58.4, 58.5,

First of all, last 100m and first 100m are considerably faster than the rest. If we ignore the first 100m, nevertheless the last 100m are 10% faster. For your standard speed of 84, that would mean 8s. (By the way, I don't think the reason for the final sprint was competition.)

At least mentally it seems clear that the last 50m or so one can mobilise energies not available otherwise. Don't know whether this plays a role at olympic levels, but I think below that it should play a role.

Oliver K said...

Just to mention: It is said that Sun Yang swum with an average of less than 28 strokes per 50m.

Oliver K said...

Perhaps the final sprint of Sun Yang was motivated by his desire to break the world record of Grant Hackett. Wouldn't it make sense to consider the two best times of Hackett and Yang as very similar? A timing analysis of Hackett's 1500m best swim should be interesting. There is a video on the Internet, but I guess there are people more professional than me in measuring the times per 50m (at least I hope so ;-)).

In "Swimming Fastest" there is a table for the 1500m in 14:51.70, 1998 by Hackett:

58.95, 59.42, 59.95, 59.81, 59.89
59.84, 1:00.20, 1:00.05, 1:00.06 1:00.04
1:00.10, 1:00.06, 1:00.35

I would guess the final sprint of Yang was quite important.

Anonymous said...

Funny to see my post as an example to the point you are tying to make :-)
I will definitly try your session (after Xmas), get my mind to trust you are right and post back with comments!

Thanks for getting my timing technic in order (push to push and not push to wall)!! Basic stuff huh? I might find out I'm not dropping off that much!

Season's greatings!

Barbara said...

Re your 8 x 300m at same speed suggestion - it works!
Once a week I swim 8 x 200m (1mile) as one of my sets keeping same time with 20 secs rest. I find sets 3 & 4 are often a struggle, but then, recently, I find I have been speeding up for the last 2 or 3 sets (or at least having a couple of seconds extra rest). I think your body just gets used to it after a while. Perhaps I should try 8 x 300's next year!
Seasons greetings to all at Swim Smooth

Adam Young said...

Thanks guys for all your comments! We’ve just been wrapping up some coach education work in Perth but I’ve now got time to respond to your comments properly:

Hi Ben, there’s definitely some specific fitness needed to kick a light flutter kick going for a whole swim session so the key really is to make sure you swim regularly and avoid lots of swimming with a pull-buoy as this will decondition the legs pretty quickly.

I’m taking your question at face value there - it could be that you’re having to kick harder than you need too because of other issues in your stroke causing your legs to sink so feel free to expand on your stroke here.

Hi Mike,

Great stuff, I personally might order it from slow to fast to make the warmup as gentle as possible on your system but I can certainly see where you’re coming from there.

Hi Ben N,

Yes the analogies with other sports are really good to help understand this. For inexperienced swimmers pacing judgement is really hard to develop in swimming and does require quite a bit of focus at first - which is obviously what we’re trying to develop here. I like to use the running example too - a sport where it’s significantly easier to ‘feel’ the pace.

Hi T,

Co-incidentally I’m 6’3” too and have long skinny legs. I’ve experimented with a 2-beat kick myself over the years and like a lot of guys with our build find I just can’t keep the legs up high enough even with everything else pretty well developed in my stroke. I’m much more efficient with a light 6 beat flutter kick behind me.

I think the solution for you is going to be tuning into that light 6 beat kick without feeling like you’re ‘revved-up’, with a little practise you should be able to do it without over-working and as the legs are brought up higher in the water, the overall effort should be lower not higher.

Swimming with a pull-buoy is likely to always feel easier for yourself but don’t use it too much, as said above, you need to develop the specific fitness in your hips/legs to kick effectively.

To kick-start (sorry!) your kick development I would get someone to video your stroke, particularly underneath the water, and see what you’re doing with your kick. It’s quite likely you’re kicking from the knee and/or have a scissor kick in place, both of which will need fixing before that light-flutter feels easy enough to sustain. More info on kick technique here:

Hi Joaquim,

Thanks for the nice comments, great to hear you’re enjoying our materials! You know we’d absolutely love to come to Brazil (it looks like a beautiful country full of beautiful people) - and we’d welcome any applications to become certified from coaches. Hopefully we can get you some face-to-face coaching in the future but in the meantime if you are ever in Australia or Europe definitely try and book a session up with one of the local guys.

You’re quite right, pacing is not easy and that’s why it’s so important to give it the attention it deserves, You’re absolutely spot-on with your comment that it should feel like a progressive effort. See out thoughts on that here in case you missed it when we posted it out:

That 400m looks really very well paced - well done! As mentioned to Oliver below, you can often speed things up 2-3 seconds on the last 100m which is a good sign of a well paced effort. If you can pick it up much more (say 5 seconds quicker on the last 100m) that does suggest you could go a little quicker earlier one but it’s a very fine line and does depend on your anaerobic capacity as an athlete.

Adam Young said...

Hi Oliver,

Yes Sun Yang’s first 100m was 2 seconds faster but as we wrote in the post that is what you gain from the dive, in terms of effort he’s getting the first 100m spot on. This is different from the time trials with our squads which were swum from a push with many of the guys 10+ seconds per 100m quicker over the first 100m - a huge miscalculation of pace. If Sun did that he’d lose many minutes over the rest of the 1500 as he blew to pieces.

Absolutely he would have known he was on for a world record (his pace judgement is great right!) and would have sped up at the end to set the best time possible. Even if he didn’t know, very few competitive 1500m’s are swum each year so I’m sure every swimmer in the field gave it absolutely everything to see where they were at - it’s not like there was a more important race the following week!

With Sun’s super-quick last 100m, we have to appreciate that he’s a world class 200m swimmer too (silver in the same olympics) - so does have a great sprint capacity to wind things up at the end. The fact that he’s able to do this tells us he paced things out well, if he started the swim with a couple of 55 second 100m’s - which he’s easily capable of - he’d have faded badly and lost all that time and a lot more besides. This is what the guys in our squad are doing when they badly pace these time trials, they weren’t a couple of seconds too quick over the first 100m but 10 or even 20 seconds too fast!

You know, I was poolside in London 2012 and witnessed Sun’s amazing world record swim first hand. The first 200m or so looked incredibly easy, like he’s barely trying at all, just turning the arms over and that pretty much sums up how good pacing feels. By half way you can see he’s working hard in his stroke and by 1200m he’s on the limit. I’m actually posting this from a plane on a slow connection but I’m sure this swim is on youtube if you search for it to see this for yourself. I remember seeing video of Grant Hackett’s previous record on youtube and it’s identical in that regard, the first 200m look super easy compared to the 500-1400m parts of the swim where you can really see the effort building in his stroke despite swimming at the same pace throughout.

Hi Anonymous1,

Great tip and well worth experimenting with!

Hi Anonymous2,

Great stuff - keep up the good work! With bilateral, there are normally three possible reasons why people struggle over longer distances:

1) They’re not rotating their body well to their non-dominant side, which makes breathing to that side awkward
2) They’re not exhaling well into the water which causes CO2 to build up in their system
3) They’re swimming with a very slow stroke rate

Any thoughts on which (it could be more than one) is an issue for you?

Hi Isabel,

You’re famous now!! :) Yes I’ve got a feeling you’ve got everything you need there to make a major breakthrough with your swimming, stick with it and remember the bit about consistency.

Thanks everyone, keep the comments coming!


Adam Young, Swim Smooth

Shorty said...

Great posts Adam . Found them top notch and pacing comments/tips etc perfect.
Great Xmaz to ya All at Swim Smooth.Happy New Year !!.

Oliver K said...

The post says:
"Most Arnies reading this won't truly come to terms with this and will disregard it, leaving them in the poor pacing trap until they do. If you can be the one to truly take it on board and swallow the bitter pill of swimming slower but more continuously, you will soon be on the way to being a much faster swimmer."

I have various problems with that. Apparently it doesn't work that way with "Arnies". Perhaps since your method neglects their specific emotionality? Trying to force them into something which doesn't fit them? Instead of "Arnie" I would like to consider here more generally people with good "explosive" abilities. It feels good to swim as fast as possible, it feels good to change speed. Similar to "overgliders": it feels good (for them!) to explore the stroke.

"being a much faster swimmer": this I do not see at all --- it is being a much faster long-distance swimmer, but I don't see at all how all that distance works helps me with getting faster with 50m, say. Perhaps "Arnies" and "overgliders" don't want to swim long distances?!

To stay within the pictures of those engines: a diesel engine is a heavy thing, which apparently will only hinder me sprinting, won't it? Why don't you say to Arnies: "forget about swimming long distances, shorter distances fit you much better"? Somewhere on the SwimSmooth Catch Masterclass DVD there is an added sequence where one sees an "Arnie" swimming and Paul making some jokes. Okay, I assume that that "Arnie" knows about it, and that's a kind of fun common among sportsmen, but that image stayed in my memory, as something rather negative.

Why do I myself read the blog, comment on here? SwimSmooth helped me a lot, and I would like to be part of it. Thus I tried again and again to force myself to that CSS etc., but I only develop some kind of hostility to it. Before I got the neck problems I did once a slow 1500m swim, just 30min, and it was the worst swimming experience I ever had --- cold and boring, instead of warm and intense. OF COURSE, there are many who like the long constant sets (that one-mile thing, for example). But I would feel much better if the diversity would be recognised. So well, I guess I just have to accept that SwimSmooth develops in a different direction than I would like. (It started so nice, from my perspective, with the model swimmer a sprinter.)

Michelle VW said...

I must admit I find this amusing! I would give anything to be able to sprint fast at the start - I'm such a pure diesel engine I tend to lose the group at the start of a race - and therefore that oh so precious draft...

Philip in Canada said...

I love the swim smooth blog posts as I find them very helpful and their tips have done wonders for improving my swimming over the last two years. I was your classic Arnie and after following SS tips on pacing and longer sets with shorter rest periods, I was able to feel much more comfortable in my triathlon swims (Olympic and 70.3) as well as take off about 30s per 100m. I currently average about 1:50 per 100m, which I realize is slow compared to many posters in this blog but considering I could not even swim 25m two years ago, I am happy with my improvements. My only "coach" has been the Swim Smooth website and SS blog posts and I really just want to pass on my sincere thanks for the great work, ideas, suggestions, training tips etc. that you guys have to offer. Please keep the fantastic ideas and suggestions coming :)

Ken Maclaren said...

I don't know if this is common but as a middle aged swimmer / triathlete (52) I now find it crucial to avoid going too fast in the early stages of an event in order to get my best swim result or swim. If I do go too fast in the first 100m or so I find it really hard to get into any sort of pace and rythmn and slow accordingly. In my younger days I could go out hard get on to the right pair of feet then settle in. These days avoiding the oxygen debt of a too hard first 60sec is crucial to my overall swim results. Incidentally I often find that folks who are beside me after the first 50m end up 2 min or more behind me at the end of our local 750m swims in our local tri's.

Adam Young said...

Thanks Shorty, great to meet you a few weeks ago, have a fantastic Christmas in New Plymouth!

Hi Oliver, sorry if we/I caused any offence to you, yes Swim Smooth is pretty focused on distance swimming in the pool, open water and triathlon, which is the whole remit behind CSS training. We have discussed that before on the blog comments? Bear in mind though, that even if your focus in on sprinting, pacing is still important, especially over 100-200m.

Hi Michelle, yes if you’re naturally a diesel engine then pacing is going to be much less of an issue for you! Developing your CSS pace is still all important though, if you can do that then you’ll keep up with those guys at the start without harming yourself and then you can swim away from them as they tire through the swim - perfect!

Hi Philip, great to hear and wow 30s/100m - that’s a great improvement, well done! Keep up the great work, stick to the basic of technique, fitness and open water skills, and the improvements will keep coming I’m sure!

Hi Ken, thanks for the post - that’s such a classic experience for someone who has developed good pacing - you literally just swim straight past everyone in the second half of the swim or earlier than that sometimes!

Thanks guys,


Anonymous said...


Thanks for the feedback! I feel a little self-conscious now that my post is out there for the entire SwimSmooth world to see, but I hope it helps others who are struggling with the same concern.

I look forward to trying the 8x300 set later this week with the goal of swimming EVERY 50 at 49-50 seconds. We'll see how it goes.

I am still skeptical that by slowing the pacing of my first 50 in a time trial (200 or 400), that I will see any substantial improvement in my later splits at those distances. I can see how that improvement would carry into longer distances (say over 600 m), and I think I am doing a better job of pacing out my longer swims. If I do a 1500 for instance, my first 50 is usually around 45-46 seconds and then I settle nicely into a 49-51 seconds per 50 pace. When I do a shorter time trial, I am usually able to pour it on in the last 50-100 m and drop my split almost back to my first 50-100 split, so I doubt that by slowing down my opening that I will be able to sustain a faster split in the middle. BUT, I am willing to keep an open mind and give it a try. I look forward to seeing how it plays out.

Thanks again for the advice and the great forum and blog!!! Keep it up.

Carl (Minnesota)

Adam Young said...

Great stuff Carl, there's only one way to prove it to yourself and that's to actually try it! My top tip is to push on a bit on the third 100m of the 200m and then sustain the effort until the end. It's possible you've taken it too easy from 200-300 until now!

Anonymous said...

Hi Adam

Thanks for your thoughts on how to improve bilateral breathing. I'm swimming at a steady 57 spm, and my rotation is pretty good on both sides as far as I can cell. I've really focused on full exhalation in the last couple of sessions, and this seems to have helped. I must say that I have to really concentrate on keeping a relaxed exhalation as I begin to tire - still have a residual instinct to hold my breath just a little I think. I'll keep plugging away, as I think this is probably the key factor for now.

Unknown said...

Hi Oliver,

Tks for replying my comment. As Adam also said, the beginning of a race you have the dive from the blocks that give the swimmer some extra speed. And as you said and Adam confirmed, the last 100m we find a way to use some extra power to go faster, but if you go to fast in the last 100m compared to the other 100m, probably it would be possible to be a bit faster in the other 100m.

Hi Adam,

Tks for your comment. As soon as I have plans to go either to Australia or Europe, I'll check with you you for certified coaches to do a session with one of them.

And if you or anyone from SwimSmooth, including your students and blog readers) has plans to come to Brazil, please let me know, and I'll be happy to arrange an open water session here!


Adam Young said...

Great stuff, thanks Joaquim and Neil!

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Anonymous said...

For two years, I joined Steve Casson for a week in Mallorca and was 'diagnosed' as an Arnie.

First I was kind of upset by it or maybe I felt insulted at first, true, but as rationality got the upper hand, I realized, that this diagnosis might help me for the right treatment.

And it sure did (for which I am still grateful to Steve for honestly saying so).

One of the things I learned, is not to train without a pacer (I go on 54 per minute): it keeps me from swimming the pace of my neighbor and it helps me to stay in my own rhythm.

Jeroen Maas

Unknown said...

Thanks for sharing your thoughts. I truly appreciate your efforts and I am waiting for your next write ups thanks once again.

Unknown said...

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